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The fives measures which help to diagnose and treat various diseases are collectively known as nidanpanchak. 
They are as follows:
(1) Hetu/Nidan (Aetiological factors)
In simple words, it can be called "the causes" that lead to various diseases. In medical terminology, these are called the aetiological factors. 
Vitiated doshas are necessarily the cause of all the diseases; the cause of their excitation is said to be the indulgence in various unsalutary regimens.
 Vitiated food and habits vitiate doshas, which in turn vitiate dhatus and leads to diseases. 
Besides doshas, other causes which lead to diseases are:
  • poisons
  • fire 
  • external trauma, etc. 

However, these causes ultimately lead to the vitiation of the doshas, which further hinder the good health.
 All these put together, comprise the hetu or the causes, which lead to the major diseases.

(2) Purva roopa (Pro-dormal features)
Pro-dormal features are those, which appear before the onset of the disease, i.e. before the involvement of the specific doshas resulting into a specific disease.
(3) Roopa (Symptoms)
When the pro-dormal features reach the stage of manifestation, they are called roopa, i.e. the stage where the symptoms of the disease become obvious.
(4) Samprapti (Pathogenesis)
The process of origination or progress of disease by the spreading vitiated doshas is called samprapti (pathogenesis).
(5) Upasaya (Therapeutic trial)
The trial with drugs, diet and daily regimen having specific beneficial effects by acting directly or indirectly against the causative factors, the disease process or both, is known as upasaya; the same is also called satmya

Similarly the trial with drugs, diet and regimen having unbeneficial effects is known as anupasaya, which is also termed as vyadhi asatmya.


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