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Smoking

Alcohol

  
Smoking
Smoking has a hazardous effect on the body. Increased risk from cardio-vascular disease has been recognized for more than 30 years. Smoking directly influences Coronary Heart Diseases. Effects include thromase formation and plaque instability.
Products of Nicotine are involved in progression of heart diseases. 
Cigarette smoking is the risk factor for developing osteoporosis because of toxic effects of osteoblasts (bones cells). A strong correlation in reproductive function and bone mass and density appears to be affected by smoking with a decrease in estrogens.
The gastrointestinal function is affected by smoking, where smoking impairs spontaneous healing and increases the risk and rapidity of ulcer. There is likeliness that that ulcer will perforate and may require surgery.

Alcohol
Alcohol is widely used as a beverage.
Acute substantial doses of alcohol consumed over short period of time tend to inhibit drug metabolism. However, chronic consumption of alcohol leads to acceleration of drug action. The concurrent injection of alcohol leads to psycho-motor
impairment and central nervous system depressant action.
Several reports have implicated alcohol as a major contributor to bone weakness. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol is one of the causes of cancer, as they act synergistically with tobacco.
5-7% of hypertension in the population is due to alcohol consumption. 3 drinks per day is the threshold for raising Blood Pressure, which is associated with 3 mm of mercury increase.
Alcohol cannot be converted to glucose, as it blocks synthesis of glucose.

Positive affects of alcohol.

Moderate consumption of alcohol (Red wine) is associated with a 40-50 % reduction in heart diseases. Alcohol helps in reducing the stress levels.
 

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