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Non-nutritive  components of food & their significances
Try sin Inhibitors:
Found in plant foods like legumes and animal foods like white of egg. 
They inhibit the activity of trypsin in the gut and interfere with digestibility of dietary proteins. They are however heat labile and cooking deactivates them.

Found in unrefined cereals and millets.
Phytates bind iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium and make it unavailable to the body. Germination reduces the phytate content.

Present in high amounts in seed coat of most legumes, spices tamarind, turmeric and in certain vegetables and fruits. 
Tannins combine with iron irreversibly and interfere with iron absorption.

Found in green leafy vegetables and some legumes. 
Oxalate interferes with calcium absorption by forming insoluble salts with calcium.

These are compounds that are present in plant food. They get in the way with iodine uptake by thyroid glands and contribute to the development of iodine deficiency, when iodine intakes are marginal. Foods containing goitrogens are cabbage, cauliflower radish rapeseed and turnips.

Role of fiber in Food
Dietary Fiber:
Is the name given collectively to indigestible carbohydrates present in food. Fiber aids in elimination of waste products. It binds to minerals and hinders their absorption. 

Role of Fiber in Food:
Dietary fiber is the name given collectively to indigestible carbohydrates present in food. Some of these are water-soluble while others are water insoluble.

Examples of soluble fibre are pectins, gums and mucilages. Examples of insoluble fibre are lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. 

Functions of fiber in the diet:
The consumption of fiber results in the formation of softer stools as it absorbs water from the stomach.
It also reduces intestinal transit time and helps in the regular defecation. It helps in the elimination of toxins and carcinogens. 
 It also provides a satiety value to the diet.
Helps to reduce cholesterol levels by binding with bile acids and bile salts.
Adulterants used in Food
Food adulteration is defined as ‘the intentional addition of non-permitted foreign matter’.

Common adulterants present in food:

Milk - Addition of water/removal of fat.
Skim milk - soluble starch.
Cream -foreign fats.
Ghee -Hydrogenated fat/animal fat.
Vegetable oils -Cheap/non edible oil like linseed, mineral oils.
Wheat and rice -stones
Bengal gram dhal -Kesari dhal.
Chilli powder- Starch colored red by tar dye.
Black pepper- Dried papaya seeds
Honey -colored sugar syrup.
Tea - exhausted tea leaves.

Side Effects of Additives
Mustard oil contaminated with argemone oil- (less than 10%) causes epileptic dropsy- the disease starts with gastro intestinal disturbances with symptoms like rashes, low pulse rate, edema, enlargement of liver, respiratory problems etc.

Addition of Kesari dhal in Bengal gram dhal leads to a disease known as lathyrism, which makes a person crippled.
Common sources of cholesterol are butter, cream, egg yolk, milk and meat. The liver in the body also synthesizes cholesterol.

Cholesterol is present in the body tissues. The largest amounts being present in the brain, nervous tissue, liver, skin, endocrine glands, intestinal mucosa, blood and the bile.

Functions of cholesterol are:

 Precursor for other steroid hormones like Vitamin D.
 Prevents excess loss of water from the skin.
 Acts as a barrier to toxins, viruses and bacteria.

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